Behavioural and pathomorphological impacts of flash photography on benthic fishesConclusion
This is the first study to investigate the combined pathomorphological and behavioural impacts of photographer behaviour and photographic flashes on animals. We conclude that the effects of photographic flash alone are minor and do not have a stronger impact than those caused by human presence or photography without flash. However, manipulating animals during photography elicits very strong evasive responses and should therefore be avoided. While feeding efficiency was not negatively impacted in this study, repeated diver manipulation in highly popular dive sites could still have the potential to lead to chronic stress, increased energy requirements, and reduced fitness in photographed animals.
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